According to then eBay Staff MT Language Specialist Juan Rowda in an article he wrote for Slator in November 2016, "human translation is not viable" for the company. He said as of that writing, the company had 800 million listings of around 300 words each. "It would take 1,000 translators 5 years to translate only the 60 million listings eligible for Russia," Rowda said, contextualizing the problem that eMT was meant to solve.
FORUM was founded in 2003 by the joint efforts of researchers from KSCI and ESIT. It is a refereed international Translation Studies Journal, bilingual English/French, and appears twice a year. FORUM is supported by UNESCO's Clearing House for Literary Translation. The Journal's primary objective is to offer publication space to Translation Studies researchers not only from Western countries, but also from Asia, Africa and the Middle-East. The papers published in FORUM deal with a variety of issues: translation of technical texts, literature, philosophy and poetry, interpreting in its various modes, the teaching of translation and interpreting, and often offer regional points of view. They apply a variety of liberal arts or empirical methodologies.
该研究论文中的结论与最近几年其它研究得出的结论一致，比如2011年Johannes Lohmann的研究和2013年Alejandro Molnar的研究，后者在论文中写道“语言障碍对贸易的制约可能比之前文献所述更甚。”
This journal is peer reviewed and indexed in: ANVUR Riviste scientifiche (ANVUR/Scientifiche) ; CNKI ; ERIH PLUS ; IBR/IBZ ; Linguistic Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique ; Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts ; MLA International Bibliography ; Scopus ; Translation Studies Bibliography
ISSN 2542-5277 | E-ISSN 2542-5285 | Electronic edition This journal is peer reviewed and indexed in: CNKI ; Glottolog ; IBR/IBZ ; Linguistic Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique ; Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts ; MLA International Bibliography ; Translation Studies Bibliography
The overall objective of the journal is to connect rigorous descriptions of the observable activities of translators and interpreters – as the result of ethnographic, experimental or corpus research – to conceptions of the translating mind and brain. Translation, Cognition & Behavior will thus publish empirical and theoretical contributions focusing on the cognitive and behavioral aspects of a broad range of cross-language activities including all kinds of translation and interpreting tasks and subtasks, but also other unique forms of communicative mediation, professional or otherwise.
Potential for Rapidly Increasing Trade
eBay has developed its own inhouse MT engines (eMT) for multiple language pairings. The study focuses on the English to Spanish eMT, which was introduced in 2014, and looks at its effect on international trade based on US exports.
ISSN 1598-7647 | E-ISSN 2451-909X | Electronic edition
The results in the research paper are consistent with other recent research, such as that of Johannes Lohmann in 2011 and Alejandro Molnar in 2013, who, according to the paper, "argue that language barriers may be far more trade-hindering than suggested by previous literature."
西班牙阿利坎特大学(University of Alicante)的口笔译文献数据库：
原标题：译事 | 最新研究！机器翻译已对国际贸易产生重大影响
Anthony Pym works on translation and intercultural studies:
Editorial email address: forum.tnigmail.com
Overcoming language barriers is also high on the agenda for Europe’s efforts to create a Digital Single Market with the European Union investing millions into language technologies.
The Journal of Translation Studies is a double-blind peer reviewed bilingual journal (English and Chinese) devoted to all aspects of translation studies. While the journal has a special focus on the history, theory and practice of Chinese-English, English-Chinese translation, it also publishes high-quality articles on research regarding other language combinations and/or general theoretical aspects of translation. The Journal also publishes book reviews by invitation. Contributions may be submitted all year round.
Back to eBay. NEBR also found that MT afforded eBay a reduction in translation-related search costs, owing to improved translation quality, which increased search matching accuracy and the quality of titles of listings.
Translation, Cognition & Behavior focuses on a broad area of research generally known as cognitive translation studies – a term that encompasses new conceptual paradigms being explored in cognitive translatology as well as traditional translation process research. Cognitive translation studies intersects with a number of disciplines, and the journal welcomes interdisciplinary research from philosophy, cognitive science, psychology, bilingualism studies, anthropology, artificial intelligence, ergonomics, and, indeed any discipline that can illuminate our understanding of the mental processes that underlie the complex observable behavior of cross-language communication.
The NBER paper finds that "the introduction of a machine translation system has significantly increased international trade on this platform, increasing exports by 17.5%." Although, using a number of different control samples, the results vary from a positive change of between 11.8% and 20.9%.
Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation Technology :
eMT is not used for product categories, adverts, or other fixed areas of the webpages, but is specifically applied to searches. Buyers can search in Spanish, and eMT then enables eBay to match the search query to its listing titles, which are stored in English. From here, the eMT translates and displays the listing titles in Spanish, so the Spanish users only ever need to engage with Spanish content.
The paper by Erik Brynjolfsson, a Professor at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, Xiang Hui, and Meng Liu was published in August 2018. It looks at how eBay’s machine translation engines have affected international trade on the platform. This analysis is used as evidence "of direct causal links between AI adoption and economic activities."
Topics of specific interest include, but are not limited to the extension of general cognitive research paradigms (e.g., computationalism, connectionism, embodied, embedded, extended, enacted, affective, distributed cognition) into cognitive translation studies; the development and learning of translation skills (e.g., expertise, cognitive aspects of translation teaching and learning, translation competence); cognitive research methods (eye tracking, keystroke logging, neuroimaging, and so on); and explorations of how the environment influences people's behavior and cognitive processing when performing communicative tasks (ergonomics, human–computer interaction, usability studies).
Compared to other potential applications of machine learning technology such as self-driving cars for example, the NEBR researchers say machine translation is relatively easier to implement. For this reason, its potential for fueling a rapid increase in trade is particularly significant.
MonTI is an academic, peer-reviewed and international journal fostered by the three public universities with a Translation Degree in the Spanish region of Valencia (Universitat d’Alacant, Universitat Jaume I de Castelló and Universitat de València). Our first priority is to publish texts providing an in-depth analysis of translation- and interpreting-related matters that meet high standards of scientific rigour, foster debate and promote plurality.MonTI will publish one thematic issue each year, with a maximum of 600 pages, first as a hard copy journal (ISSN: 1889-4178) and, after a six-month interval, as an online journal (ISSN: 1989-9335), taking advantage of the digital platform provided by the University of Alicante. In order to ensure both linguistic democracy and dissemination of the journal to the broadest readership possible, the hard-copy version will publish articles in German, Spanish, French, Catalan and English. The online version is able to accommodate multilingual versions of articles so that authors who so desire can provide a copy of their article in a language other than the stipulated languages of publication. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to provide an English-language translation of all articles not submitted in this language. We would like to make special mention of our commitment to meeting international quality criteria. Thus, the journal will invite experts in each of the subject areas related to Translation and Interpreting to serve as issue editors. There will be an open call for papers for each issue, and at least 75% of the contributing authors will always be from universities other than our own. Each contribution will be peer-reviewed by two preeminent researchers or professionals, and MonTI will provide authors with a detailed explanation when an article is not considered worthy of publication.Apart from the Board of Referees, there is a Board of Advisors made up by prestigious scholars whose main task will be to help us to set our editorial policy and subject it to assessment.
iNDEXINGMonTI is included in the following databases: BITRA, Carhus Plus+, Dialnet, DICE, ERIH Plus, ESCI (Web of Science), FECYT, ISOC, Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus & TSB.
The researchers also analyzed the impact of eMT in Europe, based on British and Irish exports to France, Italy and Spain, and concluded that "the rollout of eMT in Europe confirms the finding that machine translation increases exports on eBay."
In the NEBR paper’s conclusion, the authors note that MT “has made the world significantly smaller and more connected.”
The potential is even more pronounced given the sheer scale of ecommerce platforms such as eBay, which the paper notes "mediated more than 14 billion dollars of global trade among more than 200 countries in 2014."